All rocks and minerals contain long-lived radioactive elements that were incorporated into Earth when the Solar System formed.
These radioactive elements constitute independent clocks that allow geologists to determine the age of the rocks in which they occur.
The radioactive parent elements used to date rocks and minerals are: Radiometric dating using the naturally-occurring radioactive elements is simple in concept even though technically complex.
If we know the number of radioactive parent atoms present when a rock formed and the number present now, we can calculate the age of the rock using the decay constant.
These were once molten lavas that were successively erupted onto the earth’s surface through volcanic vents and fissures and flowed over already deposited layers of siltstones.
Radioactivity was discovered in 1896 by French physicist Henri Becquerel.
The probability of a parent atom decaying in a fixed period of time is always the same for all atoms of that type regardless of temperature, pressure, or chemical conditions.
Its crust is continually being created, modified, and destroyed.
As a result, rocks that record its earliest history have not been found and probably no longer exist.