Some authors have suggested that polytheistic Arabs used the name as a reference to a creator god or a supreme deity of their pantheon.
According to one hypothesis, which goes back to Julius Wellhausen, Allah (the supreme deity of the tribal federation around Quraysh) was a designation that consecrated the superiority of Hubal (the supreme deity of Quraysh) over the other gods.
Some archaeological excavation quests have led to the discovery of ancient pre-Islamic inscriptions and tombs made by Arab Christians in the ruins of a church at Umm el-Jimal in Northern Jordan, which contained references to Allah as the proper name of God, and some of the graves contained names such as "Abd Allah" which means "the servant/slave of Allah".
The name Allah can be found countless times in the reports and the lists of names of Christian martyrs in South Arabia, as reported by antique Syriac documents of the names of those martyrs from the era of the Himyarite and Aksumite kingdoms.
This work was supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada under Grants A9373, A9413, 0011 and by the Fonds pour la Formation de Chercheurs et l'Aide à la Recherche under Grant EQ2369 and EQ3886.
Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah in pre-Islamic polytheistic cults.
As an intermediate step towards finding a complete list of projective planes of order 9, we have to generate all the Latin squares of order 8.We find numbers that agree with Wells, but different from those of Brown and Arlazarov and coworkers. We also give the distributions of these numbers according to the size of the automorphism group, which allows one to easily cross check the results.