A living will extends the principle of consent, whereby patients must agree to any medical intervention before doctors can proceed.It allows the patient to guide for the future when she may be too ill to make decisions concerning care. For many the living will preserves personal control and eases the decision-making burden of a family.Living-will statutes require that the person be legally competent to execute the will and that the will be witnessed by at least one disinterested person.Once a person who has a valid living will is terminally ill, the attending physician and a second physician must certify in writing that there is no reasonable expectation for improvement in the patient's condition and that death will occur as a result of the incurable disease, illness, or injury.Therefore, if the patient is unable to breathe, the doctor is not required to connect the patient to a respirator.A patient may state in a living will that he does not want a feeding tube if unable to swallow food.
The living will is one type of advance directive that may be used by a person before incapacitation to outline a full range of treatment preferences or, most often, to reject treatment.Forty-two states and the District of Columbia have living-will statutes that make a properly executed living will legally binding.In states that do not have a statute, living wills stand as a clear expression of the patient's wishes.Another common directive is to forbid resuscitation if the patient's heart stops beating.
A written document that allows a patient to give explicit instructions about medical treatment to be administered when the patient is terminally ill or permanently unconscious; also called an advance directive.
With improvements in modern medicine, the life of persons who are terminally ill or permanently unconscious can be prolonged.